BORDER MANAGEMENT AND INTERNAL SECURITY:
India occupies a predominant strategic position in Southern Asia, by virtue of it being located on the head of the Indian Ocean and its relative socio-cultural and economic might in the region.With a long coastline (7,683km),a vast EEZ (over 2 m.s.km)and a land boundary of 15,000kms with seven countries,hostile neighbours, country's internal security challenges are inextricably linked with border management. The challenge of coping with long-standing territorial and boundary disputes with China and Pakistan, combined with porous borders along some of the most difficult terrain in the world, has made effective and efficient border management a national priority. Actual Ground Position Line (AGPL) in Siachen glacier, Line of Control (LC) in J&K, International Boundary (IB) with Pakistan from J&K to Gujarat, Line of Actual Control (LAC) with China are the varying nomenclatures based on the ground situation as well as different claim lines. There are various forces looking after the border that include the Indian Army, Assam Rifles, Border Security Force (BSF), Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) and the Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB). The Indian Navy and the Coast Guard looks after the maritime frontiers. The dynamics of the border and the forces deployed keeps changing with the place and with time. Each border has its own nuances based on perceived threat, terrain and local population. The approach to border management must vary from one border to other.
India's rate of growth has far outpaced that of most of its neighbours and this has generated problems like mass migrations into India. Besides increased cross-border terrorism; infiltration and ex-filtration of armed militants; emergence of non-state actors; nexus between narcotics traffickers and arms smugglers; illegal migration; left-wing extremism; separatist movements aided and abetted by external powers;
In the western sector in Ladakh, the LAC is ambiguous because of several "claim lines" and due to the paucity of easily recognisable terrain features on the Aksai Chin plateau. This makes it difficult to accurately correlate ground and map, except in the area of the Karakoram Pass, which lies on the high Karakoram Range.
In the west, soon after independence, the two armies were engaged in a so-called 'eyeball-to-eyeball' confrontation with daily loss of life and property that could justifiably be called a 'low intensity limited war.' Since 25 November 2003, however, an informal ceasefire has been in place all along the LoC. However Pakistan's side keeps on violating it very often.
Very often Indian and Chinese patrols have met face- to-face in areaslike the two "fish-tail" shaped protrusions in the north-east corner of Arunachal Pradesh. Such meetings have an element of tension built into them and the possibility of an armed clash can never be ruled out.
The border with Nepal was virtually unattended till very recently as Nepalese citizens have free access to live and
work in India under a 1950 treaty between the two countries. Following the eruption of a Maoist insurgency in Nepal, however, efforts have been made to gradually step up vigilance along this border as India fears the southward spread of Maoist ideology. Since the Royal Bhutanese Army drove out the Bodo and ULFA insurgents from its territory some years ago, the border has been relatively quiet. The border with Myanmar also remains operationally active and several insurgent groups have secured sanctuaries for themselves in Myanmar despite the cooperation extended by the Myanmarese army. The cross-border movement of Nagas and Mizos for training, purchase of arms and shelter when pursued by Indian security forces, combined with the difficult terrain obtaining in the area, make this border extremely challenging to manage.
Any policy must enunciate clear cut response mechanisms and issues of command and control. The border management policy must take into account the peculiarities of each border and evolve a comprehensive strategy to amalgamate all available resources for effective border management.
The management of disputed and unresolved border must be the responsibility of Indian Army functioning under the MoD. The management of other borders must be with the CAPFs, functioning under MHA. All organisations involved in border management must seek directions from and be accountable to one nodal agency during peace and war. In event of more than one force on a particular border, the chain of command must be clearly laid down.
India and Bangladesh , one of the most perplexing border disputes in the world finally ended. In a historic move, India and Bangladesh signed the Land Boundary Agreement in June 2015 to finally put an end to the 41-year-old boundary dispute.After extensive talks between Modi and Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina, the two sides signed 22 agreements, including on cooperation in maritime safety and to curb human trafficking and fake Indian currency.
With the border agreement in place, India has now control of 510 acres of land while Bangladesh will have control of 10,000 acres of land.Modi, on his maiden visit to Bangladesh, also expressed confidence to have a "fair solution" to the Teesta and Feni river water sharing issues with Bangladesh "with the support of state governments in India".Talking about the Indo- Bangladesh ties, PM Modi said, "We are not just neighbours but nations bound by the threads of history, religion, culture, language and kinship and a passion for cricket."
The exchange of documents paves way for the operationalisation of the 1974 India-Bangladesh LBA that provides for exchange of 161 enclaves (small areas of sovereignty completely surrounded on all sides by another country) between the two countries. A total 111 border enclaves will be transferred to Bangladesh in exchange for 51 that will become part of India.
In the recently concluded Budget Session, Parliament had passed a historic Constitution Amendment Bill seeking to settle India's 41-year-old border issue with Bangladesh.This act will have a major effect on the lives of more than .......
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